Aortic valve surgery: The aortic valve lets blood flow from the left lower chamber of the heart (left ventricle) to the aorta, which is the body's main blood vessel. These procedures repair or replace an aortic valve that isn't working correctly.
Arrhythmia surgery: An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. Most arrhythmias are considered harmless and are left untreated, but some need to be treated. There are a variety of procedures to treat arrhythmia.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery: During this procedure, a blood vessel is removed or redirected from one area of the body and placed around the area or areas of narrowing to "bypass" the blockages and restore blood flow to the heart muscle.
Left ventricular remodeling/surgical ventricular restoration: This procedure restores the natural shape of the heart in those who have had a heart attack, allowing the heart to pump blood more efficiently.
Minimally invasive heart surgery: This is the term for procedures that surgeons perform through small incisions in the right side of the chest as an alternative to open heart surgery.
Mitral valve repair: The mitral valve is the "inflow valve" for the left side of the heart. This procedure treats stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of this valve.
Myectomy/myotomy for HOCM: This procedure surgically removes the thickened heart wall that occurs in those with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM), which is the leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest in young athletes. This procedure is performed when medications are ineffective.
Peripheral Vascular Surgery: [lower extremities, upper extremities, and carotid arteries] In this procedure, a portion of a small blood vessel from the leg or chest is used to bypass an artery that is blocked somewhere other than in the chest (i.e. the legs, arms, or neck).
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Surgery: This procedure replaces the aorta through a cut on the left side of the chest which may reach to the abdomen. Endovascular stenting is a less invasive option.
Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR): This procedure creates conduits or channels through the wall of the heart to improve blood flow into areas of the heart that are not fit for direct revascularization.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): This is a minimally invasive approach to implanting an artificial heart valve inside a stenotic aortic valve. This procedure is ideal for patients who are too high-risk for traditional aortic valve surgery. (Click here for more information on TAVR.)
Valvular surgery: When blood flows between different chambers of the heart or into large arteries, it flows through a heart valve, which opens up to allow blood to flow through, then closes to keep blood from flowing backward. These procedures repair or replace diseased heart valves.
Left to right: Edward M. Leppard, MD; John Sutton, III, MD; William M. Yarbrough, MD, and Robert P. Zurcher, MD